RSS Feed http://prcfour.org This is an RSS Feed en Sat, 25 May 2019 13:01:52 +0000 Sat, 25 May 2019 13:01:52 +0000 5 http://prcfour.org/blog/post/sweet-e-cigarettes-may-increase-caries-risk Sweet E-Cigarettes May Increase Caries Risk http://prcfour.org/blog/post/sweet-e-cigarettes-may-increase-caries-risk <!--StartFragment--><p><!--StartFragment-->By&nbsp;<a href="https://dimensionsofdentalhygiene.com/author/abrody/" title="Posts by Ambrosia Brody, Managing Editor" rel="author">Ambrosia Brody, Managing Editor</a><!--EndFragment--> </p><!--StartFragment--><p>A new research study published in the journal&nbsp;<em>PloS One</em>&nbsp;has found that using, or “vaping,” sweet e-cigarettes may increase the risk of dental caries.</p><p>Unlike combustible tobacco products, such as traditional cigarettes, cigars, and cigarillos, e-cigarettes produce an aerosol by heating a liquid that usually contains propylene glycol, glycerin, nicotine, and a variety of flavors, including sweet flavors. Sweet flavors are classified as saccharides, esters, acids, or aldehydes. Users inhale the aerosol into their lungs.</p><p>Researchers of the study, “<a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0203717&amp;type=printable" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Cariogenic Potential of Sweet Flavors in Electronic-Cigarette Liquids,</a>” systematically evaluated e-cigarette aerosols and found that certain e-liquid ingredients interact with hard tissues of the oral cavity in a manner similar to high-sucrose candies and acidic drinks.</p><p>With names like gummy bear and cotton candy, these sweet e-cigarette flavors appeal to middle-school and high-school students. The common perception that vaping is less harmful than traditional smoking has added to the rise in popularity.</p><p>The US Food and Drug Administration reports&nbsp;<a href="https://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/Labeling/ProductsIngredientsComponents/ucm456610.htm#references" target="_blank" rel="noopener">81% of youth e-cigarette users</a>&nbsp;cited the availability of appealing flavors as the primary reason for use in a 2013–2014 survey.</p><p>“Some sweet flavors and their chemical by-products can increase caries risk by promoting growth and adhesion of&nbsp;<em>Streptococcus mutans</em>&nbsp;to tooth surfaces,” notes study author Jeffrey J. Kim, DDS, PhD, a project leader at the Volpe Research Center, American Dental Association Foundation, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. “… Youth and young adults are a uniquely vulnerable population to dental caries due to their high-sucrose diet and poor to minimal oral hygiene practice. And this is precisely the population that uses e-cigarettes the most.”</p><p>E-cigarettes are now the most used tobacco product among US middle- and high-school students, surpassing combustible cigarettes. A&nbsp;<a href="https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2018/p0607-youth-tobacco-use.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2017 National Youth Tobacco Survey</a>&nbsp;reports e-cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product (3.3%) among middle school students in 2017.</p><p>The study’s findings suggest that the complexity of e-cigarettes on human health goes beyond respiratory and cardiac systems and may have significant implications on oral health.</p><p>“Vaping is not without health risk and e-cigarette aerosols are not harmless water vapors,” says Kim. “</p><!--EndFragment--><!--EndFragment--><p><br></p><p><br></p> Mon, 20 May 2019 05:00:00 +0000 http://prcfour.org/blog/post/walmart-raises-minimum-age-to-buy-tobacco-to-21 Walmart raises minimum age to buy tobacco to 21 http://prcfour.org/blog/post/walmart-raises-minimum-age-to-buy-tobacco-to-21 <p>Wolterk/iStock(NEW YORK) -- Walmart is following in the footsteps of other retail brands and raising the minimum age to buy tobacco to 21.<br> <br> The superstore also announced Wednesday that it will discontinue the sale of fruit and dessert-flavored nicotine.<br> <br> On April 5, Walmart received a letter from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regarding its efforts to prevent the sale of tobacco and electronic nicotine delivery systems to minors, which caused the company to reevaluate its policies, John Scudder, chief compliance and ethics officer for Walmart, said in a statement.<br> <br> "Even a single sale to a minor is one too many, and we take seriously our responsibilities in this regard," Scudder said.<br> <br> Walmart passed 93% of nearly 13,000 of its FDA compliance checks involving minors at its stores, according to a letter the chain sent back to the FDA on Wednesday. With the new policies, the company-wide goal will be 100%, according to the retail chain.<br> <br> The new policy will go into effect across all Walmart stores in the U.S. on July 1.<br> <br> Last month, Walgreens and Rite Aid announced similar initiatives to raise the minimum age to buy tobacco in their stores to 21.<br> <br> Walgreens' new policy will take effect on Sept. 1, while Rite Aid's will be implemented in July.</p><p>Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.</p> Fri, 10 May 2019 05:00:00 +0000 http://prcfour.org/blog/post/prescribed-opioids-trends-and-hotspots Prescribed Opioids: Trends and Hotspots http://prcfour.org/blog/post/prescribed-opioids-trends-and-hotspots <!--StartFragment--><p>Found out how your area is doing on prescribing rates at retail pharmacies for Opioid prescriptions.&nbsp; <a href="https://public.tableau.com/shared/7W9K5BWN9?:display_count=yes" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">Click here</a></p><!--EndFragment--> Wed, 08 May 2019 05:00:00 +0000 http://prcfour.org/blog/post/sticker-shock-campaign-targets-underage-drinking Sticker Shock campaign targets underage drinking http://prcfour.org/blog/post/sticker-shock-campaign-targets-underage-drinking <!--StartFragment--><p><span id="author-popup-9be6363c-11a6-11e8-8fc8-570b59fe2d51-asset-47534828-6b67-11e9-90c4-8b0a297879a3" rel="popover" itemprop="author" data-original-title="" title=""><a href="https://www.panolawatchman.com/users/profile/mshamburger">By Meredith Shamburger mshamburger@panolawatchman.com</a></span></p><!--StartFragment--><p> </p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px 0px 30px; color: rgb(68, 68, 68); font-size: 19px; line-height: 25px; font-family: &quot;PT Serif&quot;, Georgia, serif;">Bright green and white stickers bore a reminder to the people buying alcohol at several convenience and grocery stores on Monday: It’s illegal to give that alcohol to minors.</p><p>The effort is about “being able to reach out in a different way and ask people buying alcohol to just think about the consequences or just to think about protecting youth around this town,” Caleb Dorsey, with ETCADA, said.</p><p>The stickers are part of a cooperative effort between the Panola County Community Coalition, the East Texas Council on Alcohol and Drug Abuse, and Life Code.</p><p>Members and volunteers with the coalition, the East Texas Council on Alcohol and Drug Abuse and Life Code gathered Monday evening at the Bulldawg Stop for the event. Instructions were simple: Only place the stickers on multi-pack containers out on the sales floor. Stickers could not cover words, pictures or logos.</p><p>The bright green stickers, which are part of a national campaign, read “Hey You!! It is ILLEGAL to provide alcoholic beverages to people under 21!!!”</p><p>After tackling the Bulldawg Shop’s beer cases available for sale, the group diviided into smaller caravans to canvass city and county stores participating in the event.</p><p>In addition to reminding adults about the law, Dorsey encouraged students to be safe, especially because prom is coming up.</p><p>“We definitely know and understand that people will try to throw the afterprom parties, and we try to encourage students not to go to those just because of all the different stories we’ve heard in the past,” he said. “There’s been past issues with drinking while driving or injuries to these parties. So we want the kids to make right decisions and think about their future. A lot of the seniors at these proms, they want to go to college, they want to go out into the world and make an impact. They gotta think about that every day.”</p><p><br></p><!--EndFragment--><!--EndFragment--><p><br></p><p><br></p> Wed, 01 May 2019 05:00:00 +0000 http://prcfour.org/blog/post/some-e-cigarette-users-are-having-seizures-most-reports-involving-youth-and-young-adults Some E-cigarette Users Are Having Seizures, Most Reports Involving Youth and Young Adults http://prcfour.org/blog/post/some-e-cigarette-users-are-having-seizures-most-reports-involving-youth-and-young-adults <!--StartFragment--><p style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 1em 0px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; text-align: left;">The FDA has become aware that some people who use&nbsp;<a target="" href="https://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/Labeling/ProductsIngredientsComponents/ucm456610.htm">e-cigarettes</a>&nbsp;have experienced seizures, with most reports involving youth or young adult users. Seizures or convulsions are known potential side effects of nicotine toxicity and have been reported in the scientific literature in relation to intentional or accidental swallowing of e-liquid. However, a recent uptick in voluntary reports of adverse experiences with tobacco products that mentioned seizures occurring with e-cigarette use (e.g., vaping) signal a potential emerging safety issue. The FDA continues to monitor all adverse experiences reported to the agency about the use of e-cigarettes and encourages the public to report cases of individuals who use e-cigarettes and have had a seizure via the online&nbsp;<a target="" href="https://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/PublicHealthScienceResearch/ucm377563.htm">Safety Reporting Portal</a>, as further described below.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 1em 0px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; text-align: left;">Seizures result from sudden, abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Though often associated with convulsions in which a person’s entire body shakes uncontrollably, not all seizures show full-body shaking. Other possible signs of seizures include a lapse in awareness or consciousness, which may look like a person is staring blankly into space for a few seconds or suddenly stops moving. The person may or may not fall down. Most seizures end in a few seconds or minutes, and the person may seem fine, sleepy, confused or have a headache afterwards. They may not remember what they were doing or what happened right before the seizure. While seizures generally do not cause lasting harm, they indicate the need for prompt medical attention to look for a cause and to prevent future seizures, if possible.&nbsp;<strong>If you think a person is having a seizure, call 911 and seek immediate medical help. For exposures with less serious visible effects or if you have questions, call poison control at 800-222-1222</strong>.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 1em 0px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; text-align: left;">The FDA has been receiving&nbsp;<a target="" href="https://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/PublicHealthScienceResearch/ucm581911.htm">voluntary adverse experience reports</a>&nbsp;about tobacco products since 1988, including accepting online reports since 2014 via the Safety Reporting Portal (SRP). Consumers have also reported adverse experience information directly to poison control centers. Since June 2018, the FDA observed a slight but noticeable increase in reports of seizures. After examining poison control centers' reports between 2010 and early 2019, the FDA determined that, between the poison control centers and the FDA, there were a total of 35 reported cases of seizures mentioning use of e-cigarettes within that timeframe. Due to the voluntary nature of these case reports, there may be more instances of seizure in e-cigarette users than have been reported.&nbsp;</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 1em 0px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; text-align: left;">Seizures have been reported among first-time e-cigarette users and experienced users. In a few situations, e-cigarette users reported a prior history of seizure diagnosis. A few reported cases indicated seizures in association with use of other substances such as marijuana or amphetamines. Seizures have been reported as occurring after a few puffs or up to one day after use. Most of the self-reported data that the FDA has received does not contain any specific brand or sub-brand information about the e-cigarette.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 1em 0px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; text-align: left;">While detailed information is currently limited, the FDA is alerting the public to this important and potentially serious health issue.</p><ul style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 1em 0px 0.5em; padding-left: 0px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"> <li>Healthcare providers should be aware that seizures may be associated with e-cigarette use—<a target="" href="https://www.fda.gov/downloads/TobaccoProducts/NewsEvents/UCM635154.pdf">redacted reports of past incidents</a>&nbsp;are available on the FDA website and may assist medical evaluations of seizures.</li> <li>Consumers should recognize the wide range of symptoms that may be associated with e-cigarette use and the importance of reporting new or unexpected seizures to their doctor or clinic.</li> <li>Parents, teachers, and other concerned adults should be aware that many youth are using e-cigarettes that closely resemble a USB flash drive, have high levels of nicotine and emissions that are hard to see.</li> <li>Youth and young adult users should also be aware that some e-cigarettes (also called vapes) can contain high levels of nicotine, even as much nicotine as a pack of regular cigarettes. Teens who vape may end up addicted to nicotine faster than teens who smoke. Vapes may be used more frequently because they are easier to hide and may expose users to more nicotine. There are no safe tobacco products.</li></ul><p style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 1em 0px 0px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; text-align: left;">The FDA is seeking more information about seizures following e-cigarette use to identify common risk factors and understand if any e-cigarette product attributes such as nicotine content or formulation may contribute to seizures. If you or someone you know experiences any unexpected health or safety issues with any tobacco product, please report it through the Safety Reporting Portal (SRP). SRP users may upload relevant medical records in support of or instead of a full SRP report.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 1em 0px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; text-align: left;">When reporting an adverse experience, please be sure to include:</p><ul style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 1em 0px 0.5em; padding-left: 0px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: &quot;Helvetica Neue&quot;, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;"> <li>The name of the manufacturer</li> <li>The brand name, model, and serial number of the device or e-liquid, if applicable</li> <li>Where the device or e-liquid was purchased</li> <li>Whether the device or e-liquid was modified in any way or whether there was a device malfunction</li> <li>Whether other tobacco products, medications, supplements or other substances were used</li> <li>Whether there were any other symptoms (i.e., nausea, vomiting) or warning right before the adverse experience, such as change in the user’s behavior, alertness, vision or hearing</li> <li>Details about product use preceding the event (duration, amount and intensity of e-cigarette use)</li> <li>Details about health effects, including specific areas of the body affected, how symptoms progressed, how long they lasted, the course of the recovery, and the medical testing or care and decisions rendered.&nbsp;<a href="https://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/NewsEvents/ucm635133.htm?utm_source=Eloqua&amp;utm_medium=email&amp;utm_term=stratcomms&amp;utm_content=statement&amp;utm_campaign=CTP%20News%26Connect%26SOS%3A%20Seizure%20Announcement%20-%204219" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"> for the full article click here</a></li></ul><!--EndFragment--> Wed, 03 Apr 2019 05:00:00 +0000 http://prcfour.org/blog/post/scientists-closer-to-finding-inherited-traits-in-addiction Scientists Closer to Finding Inherited Traits in Addiction http://prcfour.org/blog/post/scientists-closer-to-finding-inherited-traits-in-addiction <p>Scientists have concluded that the risk of addiction is a complex combination of both genes and environmental influences. Despite advances in the science of genetics, it has been extremely difficult to identify the possible genetic contributions to addiction because it likely involves a combination of inherited variants in multiple genes. To find answers related to nicotine addiction, for example, scientists must study complex and nuanced questions like, do certain genetic variants play a role in initiation of smoking and others play a role in behaviors leading to heavy smoking? </p><p>Inherited variants can change the way the genes work, like the commonly known mutations that put children at risk for cystic fibrosis or put women at risk for breast cancer. Finding the suspect genes and their variants linked to addiction has been helped by large databases now being shared by scientists. This NIDA-funded study broke new ground by checking recorded data of up to 1.2 million people, simultaneously looking at multiple substance use behaviors and then cross-checking them to potential genetic factors.&nbsp;</p><p>Using the records in a comprehensive database, an international group of over 100 scientists collected information on smoking and alcohol use. They measured behaviors like the age people started smoking, how regularly or heavily they smoked, if they had smoked and then later quit. They also looked at how many drinks per week each person consumed. They then cross-checked those findings with life events (like years of education); physical characteristics (like heart rate or cholesterol level) and diseases they suffered (such as mental illnesses, Parkinson’s or Type 2 Diabetes.) They then correlated those results with specific genes suspected in various types of substance use.&nbsp;</p><p>The researchers found that there were over 400 locations in the genome and at least 566 variants within these locations that influence smoking or alcohol use. These include many locations harboring genes that influence synaptic transmission which could hold a key to understanding inherited traits in addiction. The findings show that locations associated with smoking and alcohol use affect several other chemical functions: glutamate transmission (the strength of synaptic connections); dopamine (linked to learned behavior and reward); and acetylcholine (the most plentiful nervous system transmitter.) These findings bring scientists closer to identifying clusters of genes that could play a part in addiction, giving the field of addiction science a solid starting point for further study.&nbsp;</p><p>Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse website. Science Spotlight. January 14, 2019.&nbsp;&nbsp;https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/news-releases/2019/01/scientists-closer-to-finding-inherited-traits-in-addiction</p><p><br></p><p><br></p> Thu, 07 Feb 2019 06:00:00 +0000 http://prcfour.org/blog/post/national-drug-alcohol-facts-week NATIONAL DRUG & ALCOHOL FACTS WEEK http://prcfour.org/blog/post/national-drug-alcohol-facts-week <!--StartFragment--><p style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px 0px 10px; padding: 0px; font-family: &quot;Open Sans&quot;, Arial, sans-serif; font-weight: lighter; font-size: 0.9rem; line-height: 1.5; text-rendering: optimizelegibility; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Each week it seems as if a new article is published with emphasis on the detrimental impact caused by consuming some type of drug. In recognition of National Drug and Alcohol Facts Week, the Region 4 Prevention Resource Center (PRC4) at East Texas Council On Alcoholism And Drug Abuse (ETCADA) would like to extend an opportunity to provide a brief synopsis of research and data highlighting the extent of adolescent drug and alcohol use in Northeast Texas.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px 0px 10px; padding: 0px; font-family: &quot;Open Sans&quot;, Arial, sans-serif; font-weight: lighter; font-size: 0.9rem; line-height: 1.5; text-rendering: optimizelegibility; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Underage drinking continues to be one of the most serious public health issues within the nation. In fact, prior research by the National Institute on Drug Abuse expressed that 4 in 10 people who begin drinking before the age of 15 are more likely to become alcoholics. Region 4 students surveyed in the 2018 Texas School Survey (TSS), a biennial collection of self-reported alcohol and drug use data from 7th-12th grade students, disclosed that their first encounter with alcohol was at the average age of 13. Furthermore, while 65% of students reported past month and school year use of at least one alcohol product, 30% of students reported that they have engaged in binge drinking of beer, wine coolers, wine, or liquor. Such behaviors among adolescents create pathways to drinking and driving in which regional data from a Texas Department of Transportation’s query database revealed that a total of 236 alcohol-involved crashes included persons under the age of 21 last year.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px 0px 10px; padding: 0px; font-family: &quot;Open Sans&quot;, Arial, sans-serif; font-weight: lighter; font-size: 0.9rem; line-height: 1.5; text-rendering: optimizelegibility; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">One cannot provide context for the degree of drug use without stressing the rising use of e-cigarettes among youth. While national data states that tobacco use has generally declined, it appears that national e-cigarette use has skyrocketed. According to the 2018 TSS, about 32% of Region 4 students reported using an electronic vapor product within the past month or school year. Perhaps the most alarming discovery is that the majority of youth believe that they are only vaping flavoring and not nicotine, a key addictive ingredient known for altering methods of attention, learning, mood, and impulse control within the developing brain.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px 0px 10px; padding: 0px; font-family: &quot;Open Sans&quot;, Arial, sans-serif; font-weight: lighter; font-size: 0.9rem; line-height: 1.5; text-rendering: optimizelegibility; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">With multiple media reports exposing the increasing numbers of national opioid-related deaths, it is essential to include insight about adolescent opioid use as well. According to the 2018 National Monitoring the Future Survey, a survey sample of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders, opioid use among youth has declined. As conveyed by the 2018 TSS, 11.7% of Region 4 students reported consuming non-prescribed codeine cough syrup while 3.2% reported using other non-prescribed opioids such as OxyContin, Percodan, Vicodin, and etc. within the past month or school year.</p><p style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px 0px 10px; padding: 0px; font-family: &quot;Open Sans&quot;, Arial, sans-serif; font-weight: lighter; font-size: 0.9rem; line-height: 1.5; text-rendering: optimizelegibility; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Not to mention, higher use of non-prescribed opioids were generally reported among high school sophomores.<br>ETCADA is committed to reducing alcohol and substance abuse and dependency within 23 East Texas counties. If you would like to join us in the fight, feel free to visit one of our Community Coalitions (Harrison County, Panola County, or Henderson County). Please visit our website, Facebook page, or call 903-753-7633 for more details.<br>Free copies of our 2018 Regional Needs Assessment (RNA) and 2018 Regional Handbook of Risk and Protective Factors are available for download at: www.prcfour.org. The RNA features numerous statistics concerning substance use, health, and disease in Northeast Texas. For more information on the 2018 RNA or to find out how to contribute to the collection of data that will assist Northeast Texas with prevention planning, please contact Calandra Jones, Regional Evaluator, at caljones@etcada.com or 903-753-7633.</p><!--EndFragment--> Wed, 23 Jan 2019 06:00:00 +0000 http://prcfour.org/blog/post/odds-of-dying-from-accidental-opioid-overdose-in-the-us-surpass-those-of-dying-in-car-accident Odds of dying from accidental opioid overdose in the U.S. surpass those of dying in car accident http://prcfour.org/blog/post/odds-of-dying-from-accidental-opioid-overdose-in-the-us-surpass-those-of-dying-in-car-accident <p>(CNN) - For the first time on record the odds of accidentally dying from an opioid overdose in the United States are now greater than those of dying in an automobile accident.</p><p>The grim finding comes from the National Safety Council which analyzed preventable injury and fatality statistics from 2017.</p><p>The NSC also found the lifetime odds of death for this form of overdose were greater than the risk of death from falls, pedestrian incidents, drowning and fire.</p><p>Examining a variety of federal and state data the NSC found the lifetime odds of dying from an accidental opioid overdose were 1 in 96. For motor vehicle accidents the odds were 1 in 103 and 1 in 114 for falls. The lifetime odds of suicide were greater, at 1 in 88.</p><p>"Too many people still believe the opioid crisis is abstract and will not impact them. Many still do not see it as a major threat to them or their family," said Maureen Vogel, spokeswoman for the National Safety Council told CNN in an email. "These data show the gravity of the crisis. We have known for some time that opioid overdose is an everyday killer, and these odds illustrate that in a very jarring way."</p><p>The NSC highlights, however, that the odds given are statistical averages over the whole US population and do not necessarily reflect the chances of death for a particular person from a particular external cause. In addition they are lifetime odds, based on dividing the one-year odds by the life expectancy of a person born in 2017.</p><p>In 2017 preventable injury deaths were 169,936 -- an increase of 5.3% from the year before and a 96% increase compared to the figures in 1992.</p><p>"The data really underscore the importance of knowing the biggest risks to our safety," said Vogel. "The Council calculates the Odds of Dying not to scare Americans but to empower them to make safer decisions and improve their chances of longevity."</p><p>The organization has highlighted these numbers in a bid to help prevent future deaths from preventable causes.</p><p>"For too long, preventable deaths and injuries have been called 'accidents,' implying unavoidable acts of God or fate that we are powerless to stop. This is simply not true," it wrote. "In the US, preventable injuries are at an all-time high."</p><p>Comparing 2017 to 2016, home and public deaths saw large increases of 6% or more being driven largely by an 11% increase in poisoning deaths (including opioid overdoses) and a 5% increase in fall deaths (primarily among the older population).</p><p>In 2018, unintentional injury was found to be the leading cause of death in the US, with more than 61,000 people aged 1 to 44 dying from this cause in 2016 -- nearly twice as many as from cancer and heart disease combined. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, these deaths were predominantly a result of motor vehicle accidents and unintentional poisonings.</p><p>Last month the CDC reported life expectancy in the United States declined from 2016 to 2017 due to increased drug overdoses and suicides. One study also found that a growing number of children and adolescents in the United States are dying from opioid poisonings.</p><p>"What began more than 2 decades ago as a public health problem primarily among young and middle-aged white males is now an epidemic of prescription and illicit opioid abuse that is taking a toll on all segments of US society," the researchers wrote.</p><p>Overdose deaths reached a new high in 2017, topping 70,000, while the suicide rate increased by 3.7%, the CDC's National Center for Health Statistics reports. Illegally manufactured fentanyl was suggested to be the driving force.</p><p>From 2013 to 2017, drug overdose death rates increased in 35 of 50 states and DC, with significant increases in death rates involving synthetic opioids reported in 15 of 20 states, the CDC said in a previous statement.</p><p>A separate December report found that in 2016, fentanyl surpassed heroin as the most commonly used drug in overdose deaths in the US.</p><p>Source: CNN Health:&nbsp;https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/14/health/opioid-deaths-united-states-surpass-road-accidents/index.html</p> Tue, 15 Jan 2019 06:00:00 +0000 http://prcfour.org/blog/post/surgeon-general-warns-against-e-cigarettes-vaping Surgeon general warns against e-cigarettes, vaping http://prcfour.org/blog/post/surgeon-general-warns-against-e-cigarettes-vaping <p>(WASHINGTON) -- The U.S. surgeon general is warning against the use of e-cigarettes, declaring Tuesday that any "use among young people is unsafe" and telling parents to be on the lookout for vaping devices that look like computer flash drives.</p><p>It's a considerably sterner and more specific warning than in 2016, when the same federal office identified vaping as an emerging public health concern. Since then, studies have shown a sharp uptick among young people using the devices and companies that sell the liquid nicotine in flavors that appeal to teens.</p><p>U.S. Surgeon General Jerome Adams, known as the "nation's doctor," said of particular concern is the availability of new products, including ones shaped like a USB flash drive. The office has released photos of what the devices look like as a resource to parents.</p><p>One such device made by the company JUUL saw a 600 percent surge in sales in recent years, according to Adams. And a typical JUUL cartridge, or "pod," contains about as much nicotine as a pack of 20 regular cigarettes, his office stated.</p><p>JUUL has said its goal is to help adult smokers by providing them with a "true alternative" to combustible cigarettes. The company has rolled out an age-verification system for its products and also offered to rein in sales of flavored vaping devices popular with younger consumers, including mango, creme and cucumber.</p><p>But the industry's response wasn't enough to preempt the surgeon general from issuing its official nationwide warning Tuesday.</p><p>"These products also use nicotine salts, which allow particularly high levels of nicotine to be inhaled more easily and with less irritation than the free-base nicotine that has traditionally been used in tobacco products, including e-cigarettes," according to the surgeon general.</p><p>"This is of particular concern for young people, because it could make it easier for them to initiate the use of nicotine through these products and also could make it easier to progress to regular e-cigarette use and nicotine dependence," the office added.</p><p>E-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that turn liquid nicotine into an vapor that can be inhaled. E-cigarettes have been pushed by manufacturers as an alternative to tobacco cigarettes because it doesn't produce tar.</p><p>As a general rule, doctors say it's not safe to casually inhale any type of smoke or chemical vapor. In addition to its addictiveness, nicotine can have damaging developmental effects on the human brain for people younger than 25, according to health experts.</p><p>The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates 1 in 5 high school students use the products. That's more than three million current e-cigarette users in the nation's high schools, up from 220,000 students in 2011, according to the CDC.</p><p>The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has imposed fines on e-cigarette retailers for unlawfully selling e-cigarette products to minors.</p><p>Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.</p> Tue, 18 Dec 2018 06:00:00 +0000 http://prcfour.org/blog/post/us-life-expectancy-declines-again-a-dismal-trend-not-seen-since-world-war-i U.S. life expectancy declines again, a dismal trend not seen since World War I http://prcfour.org/blog/post/us-life-expectancy-declines-again-a-dismal-trend-not-seen-since-world-war-i <p>Life expectancy in the United States declined again in 2017, the government said Thursday in a bleak series of reports that showed a nation still in the grip of escalating drug and suicide crises. </p><p>The data continued the longest sustained decline in expected life span at birth in a century, an appalling performance not seen in the United States since 1915 through 1918. That four-year period included World War I and a flu pandemic that killed 675,000 people in the United States and perhaps 50 million worldwide. </p><p>Public health and demographic experts reacted with alarm to the release of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s annual statistics, which are considered a reliable barometer of a society’s health. In most developed nations, life expectancy has marched steadily upward for decades. </p><p>“I think this is a very dismal picture of health in the United States,” said Joshua M. Sharfstein, vice dean for public health practice and community engagement at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. “Life expectancy is improving in many places in the world. It shouldn’t be declining in the United States.”<br><br>“After three years of stagnation and decline, what do we do now?” asked S.V. Subramanian, a professor of population health and geography at Harvard’s T.H. Chan School of Public Health. “Do we say this is the new normal? Or can we say this is a tractable problem?” <br><br>Overall, Americans could expect to live 78.6 years at birth in 2017, down a tenth of a year from the 2016 estimate, according to the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics. Men could anticipate a life span of 76.1 years, down a tenth of a year from 2016. Life expectancy for women in 2017 was 81.1 years, unchanged from the previous year.Drug overdoses set another annual record in 2017, cresting at 70,237 — up from 63,632 the year before, the government said in a companion report. The opioid epidemic continued to take a relentless toll, with 47,600 deaths in 2017 from drugs sold on the street such as fentanyl and heroin, as well as prescription narcotics. That was also a record number, driven largely by an increase in fentanyl deaths. </p><p>Since 1999, the number of drug overdose deaths has more than quadrupled. Deaths attributed to opioids were nearly six times greater in 2017 than they were in 1999.</p><p>Deaths from legal painkillers did not increase in 2017. There were 14,495 overdose deaths attributed to narcotics such as oxycodone and hydrocodone and 3,194 from methadone, which is used as a painkiller. Those totals were virtually identical to the numbers in 2016. The number of heroin deaths, 15,482, also did not rise from the previous year. <br><br>Robert Anderson, chief of the mortality statistics branch at the Center for Health Statistics, said the leveling off of prescription drug deaths may reflect a small impact from efforts in recent years to curb the diversion of legal painkillers to users and dealers on the streets. Those measures include prescription drug monitoring programs that help prevent substance abusers from obtaining multiple prescriptions by “doctor shopping.”</p><p>Others noted programs that may also have helped: The overdose antidote naloxone has been made more widely available in many places; Rhode Island has made efforts to educate substance abusers as they leave jail, a time when they are particularly vulnerable to overdose; and Vermont and other states have bolstered treatment programs. States that have expanded their Medicaid programs are also able to offer more treatment for users.</p><p>Anderson said provisional data for the first four months of 2018 show a plateau and possibly a small decline in drug overdose deaths.</p><p>But Sharfstein, a former secretary of health in Maryland, said the heroin numbers reveal that fentanyl is pushing that drug out of the illicit market in some places.</p><p>“The opioid market has been completely taken over by fentanyl,” Sharfstein said.</p><p>Indeed, the new data shows that illicit fentanyl-related deaths surged again, from 19,413 in 2016 to 28,466 in 2017.</p><p>As large as it was, that 47 percent increase was smaller than the jump between 2015 and 2016, when the number of deaths from fentanyl and its analogues more than doubled. (The total number of opioid deaths is smaller than the sum of the categories because some people die with multiple drugs in their systems.)<br><br>The geographic disparity in overdose deaths continued in 2017. West Virginia again led the nation with 57.8 deaths per 100,000 people, followed by Ohio, Pennsylvania and the District of Columbia. Nebraska, by contrast, had just 8.1 drug overdose deaths per 100,000 residents.<br><br>Other factors in the life expectancy decline include a spike in deaths from flu last winter and increases in deaths from chronic lower respiratory diseases, Alz­heimer’s disease, strokes and suicide. Deaths from heart disease, the No. 1 killer of Americans, which had been declining until 2011, continued to level off.Deaths from cancer continued their long, steady, downward trend.<br><br>The CDC issues its health statistics report each December. The 2017 report is the third in a row to show a decline in life expectancy.<br><br>Nearly a year later, the agency combines each year’s data with additional information from Medicare. In the past two years, that has resulted in tiny adjustments to the overall life expectancy number.<br><br>By the revised measure, life expectancy in 2015 and 2016 was flat, at 78.7, a decline from 78.9 in 2014. Any revision for 2017’s estimate of 78.6 years will come next year.<br><br>In a third report, the government detailed the ongoing growth of deaths from suicide, which has climbed steadily since 1999 and grown worse since 2006.</p><p>Most notable is the widening gap between urban and rural Americans. Suicide rates in the most rural counties are now nearly double those in the most urban counties.</p><p>Overall, suicides increased by a third between 1999 and 2017, the report showed. In urban America, the rate is 11.1 per 100,000 people; in the most rural parts of the country, it is 20 per 100,000.</p><p>A variety of factors determine suicide rates, but one that may help explain its greater prevalence in rural areas is access to guns, said Keith Humphreys, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford University.<br><br>“Higher suicide rates in rural areas are due to nearly 60 percent of rural homes having a gun versus less than half of homes in urban areas,” Humphreys wrote in an email. “Having easily available lethal means is a big risk factor for suicide.”<br><br>Sharfstein said the most lamentable aspect of the crises is that policymakers know which approaches make a difference, such as medically assisted treatment for drug abusers and increased availability of mental health services in states where they are lacking.<br><br>“So the frustration that many of us feel is that there are things that could save many lives,” he said, “and we are failing to make those services available.”<br><br></p><p>SOURCE: Bernstein, Lenny. (2018, November). U.S. life expectancy declines again, a dismal trend, not seen since World War I. The Washington Post, Retrieved from www.washingtonpost.com.</p> Thu, 29 Nov 2018 06:00:00 +0000 http://prcfour.org/blog/post/prescription-opioids-even-when-prescribed-by-a-doctor Prescription Opioids: Even When Prescribed by a Doctor http://prcfour.org/blog/post/prescription-opioids-even-when-prescribed-by-a-doctor <p><span contenteditable="false" class="f-video-editor fr-fvn fr-tnv"><iframe width="640" height="360" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/jlHQjptnD2Q" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen=""></iframe></span></p> Wed, 19 Sep 2018 05:00:00 +0000 http://prcfour.org/blog/post/alcohol-is-a-leading-cause-of-death-disease-worldwide-study-says Alcohol is a leading cause of death, disease worldwide, study says http://prcfour.org/blog/post/alcohol-is-a-leading-cause-of-death-disease-worldwide-study-says <!--StartFragment--><p>Alcohol is killing more people globally than we originally thought, according to a new study.&nbsp;</p><p>The&nbsp;<a data-track-label="inline|intext|n/a" href="https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(18)31310-2/fulltext">study</a>, published Thursday in the peer-reviewed medical journal The Lancet, found that alcohol, such as beer and wine, is a leading risk factor for death and disease, associated with 2.8 million deaths each year and the seventh-leading risk factor for premature death and disability globally in 2016.&nbsp;</p><p>Researchers used 694 studies to estimate worldwide drinking patterns and used 592 studies plus&nbsp;28 million people to learn about alcohol's health risks between 1990 and 2016 in 195 countries.</p><p>They&nbsp;found drinking alcohol was associated with&nbsp;nearly 1 in 10 deaths of people ages 15 to 49 years old. Causes included&nbsp;tuberculosis, road injuries&nbsp;and self-harm. For people over 50, cancers were cited as a leading cause of alcohol-related death (about 27 percent&nbsp;of deaths in women and 19 percent of deaths in men).</p><p>Researchers found that the "burden" of alcohol consumption was worse than previously reported. They called for more regulations around alcohol use and said there is no amount of alcohol that is healthy.&nbsp;</p><p><!--StartFragment-->“Previous studies have found a protective effect of alcohol on some conditions, but we found that the combined health risks associated with alcohol increase with any amount of alcohol,” lead author Max Griswold of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington said.<!--EndFragment--></p><!--StartFragment--><p>He said the research showed the links between drinking alcohol and the risk of cancer, injuries and infectious diseases are greater than the protective effects of alcohol linked to heart disease in women.&nbsp;</p><p>“The widely held view of the health benefits of alcohol needs revising, particularly as improved methods and analyses continue to shed light on how much alcohol contributes to global death and disability,” he said in a statement.</p><!--EndFragment--><p>More research must still be done to explain how drinking patterns affect&nbsp;health. For example, a&nbsp;glass of wine every evening versus binge drinking.&nbsp;Griswold said there are also unknowns around health once people stop drinking.&nbsp;</p><p>The most recent&nbsp;Dietary Guidelines for Americans, a report by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the United States Department of Agriculture, suggests women have no more than one drink daily and men have no more than two.&nbsp;The&nbsp;American Society of Clinical Oncology, made up some of the nation's top cancer doctors, has said&nbsp;limiting alcoholic drinks is&nbsp;important for cancer prevention.</p><p>Published Aug. 24, 2018 by USA TODAY<!--EndFragment--></p><!--EndFragment--><!--EndFragment--> Sat, 25 Aug 2018 05:00:00 +0000 http://prcfour.org/blog/post/prc4-2018-regional-needs-assessment-available-for-download PRC4 2018 Regional Needs Assessment Available for Download http://prcfour.org/blog/post/prc4-2018-regional-needs-assessment-available-for-download <!--StartFragment--><p>The Regional Needs Assessment (RNA) report is created by each Prevention Resource Center in the state of Texas, in conjunction with the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) every year.&nbsp; Data compiled to produce this report is gathered to provide the state, agencies and organizations, and the community at large with a comprehensive view of information about the trends, outcomes, and consequences associated with alcohol, tobacco and other drug use in the region.&nbsp; The methodology for this report was designed to enable PRC’s, DSHS, and community stakeholders to engage in long-term strategic prevention planning based on current and prospective services relative to the needs of the communities in the State.</p><p>This assessment was designed to aid PRC’s, DSHS, and community stakeholders in long-term strategic prevention planning based on most current information relative to the unique needs of the diverse communities in the State of Texas.&nbsp; This document presents a summary of statistics relevant to risk and protective factors associated with drug use, as well as consumption patterns and consequences data, at the same time offers insight related to gaps in services and data availability challenges.</p><p>The 2018 Regional Needs Assessment is completed and <a class="fr-file" href="/uploads/blog/7d6ddce47dcfca68013bf9d7ac02054214e7b8b1.pdf" target="_blank"><strong>now available to download</strong></a>.&nbsp; The RNA is focused on adolescent use of alcohol, marijuana, and prescription drugs in our region.&nbsp; Region 4 consists of 23 counties in East Texas.</p><p>You may also contact Calandra Jones at&nbsp;<a href="mailto:cjones@etcada.com">cjones@etcada.com</a>&nbsp;for questions or to schedule presentations on risk and protective factors related to substance abuse.</p><p><br></p><!--EndFragment--><p><br></p> Mon, 23 Jul 2018 05:00:00 +0000